It stars Burt Lancaster and Robert Ryan. Miller had previously worked with Trumbo on his film Lonely Are the Brave A narrator states that, when asked about the Kennedy Assassination and the Warren Commission report, President Johnson said he doubted the Commission's findings.
What are executive actions?
The narration ends by mentioning that the segment did not run on television, and was cut from a program about Johnson at his own request. At a gathering in June , shadowy industrial, political and US intelligence figures discuss their growing dissatisfaction with the Kennedy administration. In the plush home of lead conspirator Robert Foster, he and the others try to persuade Harold Ferguson, a powerful oil magnate dressed in white, to back their plans for Kennedy's assassination.
Fellow conspirator James Farrington, a black-ops specialist, labels this as "executive action". He shows the group that magnicide is indeed a viable option. He refers to the Lincoln , Garfield , and McKinley assassinations as examples, as well as unsuccessful attempts including against Franklin Roosevelt in He explains these attempts were carried out by alleged lone fanatics ; later scenes show the grooming process unwittingly undergone by Lee Harvey Oswald to fulfill precisely that role in the present conspiracy.
Ferguson remains unconvinced, saying such schemes are "only tolerable when necessary, and only permissible when they work". Obtaining his approval is crucial to the conspirators, although Farrington proceeds to organize two shooting teams in anticipation that Ferguson will change his mind.
One of the teams is shown during practice in the Mojave Desert , shooting moving targets at medium-to-long range. One of the shooters says that he can only guarantee the operation's success if he fires at a target moving below 15 miles per hour. After one of their meetings, Foster and Farrington discuss their murky, paranoid fears about the future of the country under Kennedy, and the security of ruling-class white people across the globe.
They both seem privy to plans known to the CIA that Ferguson, a civilian, is perhaps unaware of. Foster forecasts the world population in at seven billion, most of them non-white and "[swarming] out of their breeding grounds into Europe and North America". He sees victory in Vietnam as an opportunity to control the developing world and reduce its population to million, ominously adding "I know; I've seen the data".
He also states that the same "birth-control" methods can then be applied to unwanted groups in the United States: blacks, Latinos, poor whites, etc. Ferguson watches news reports and becomes highly concerned at Kennedy's increasingly liberal direction: action on civil rights , adoption of the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty , and nuclear disarmament. The decisive moment comes in an anti-Kennedy news report on the deteriorating situation in South Vietnam.
It is followed by Kennedy's October decision National Security Action Memorandum to withdraw all US advisers from Vietnam by the end of , effectively ending America's direct involvement in the Vietnam War. Ferguson calls Foster and tells him he now supports their project. The scene of the shooting is described. As news of the assassination reaches the conspirators, the film surveys its effects. The shooters leave Dallas and the conspirators work to cover up the evidence.
Farrington and his assistant Tim discuss the inconvenience of Oswald's survival. Tim approaches nightclub owner Jack Ruby , who stalks and kills Oswald. The plotters discuss the political fallout in Washington, D. Kennedy and the believability of the plot.
Foster states that "Bobby Kennedy is not thinking as Attorney General but as a grieving brother. By the time he recovers it will be too late". The conspirators agree that people will believe in the story because "they want to". Soon after, Foster receives a call from Farrington's assistant: Farrington has died of a heart attack at Parkland Hospital. The conspirators are now insulated from the link to the group that committed the killings. Their work is not quite finished. A photo collage of 18 material witnesses is shown, all but two of whom, the film states, died of unnatural causes within three years of the assassination.
A voice-over says that an actuary of the British newspaper The Sunday Times calculated the probability that all these people who witnessed the assassination would die within that period of time to be ,trillion-to-one. The actor Donald Sutherland has been credited as having conceived of the film, and for hiring Lane and Freed to write the screenplay. The film's musical score was composed by Randy Edelman. Released two weeks before the tenth anniversary of Kennedy's assassination, Executive Action opened to a storm of controversy about the events it depicts, and was consequently pulled from many theaters in its first few weeks.
Besides the negative press, the film was also generally panned. Current timeTotal duration Video transcript - [Lecturer] What we're going to discuss in this video is Executive Orders. And these are directives being issued by the President of the United States that can have the force of law. And I know what you're thinking, isn't Congress our legislative body, the body that actually creates the laws?
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And is it the job of the President to be the head of the Executive Branch to execute on those laws? And if you are thinking that, you are correct. Some are fairly lightweight. They might be a directive for something to be done in a certain way, or a small regulation, or even appointing someone to a job. But sometimes these Executive Orders can be quite significant.
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And the constitutional justification for these Orders come mainly from two different statements in Article II of the U. But as we will see, Presidents throughout history have really pushed the boundary here and have definitely gone into territory that you might expect to be the area of Congress. Now in terms of appreciating how frequent these Executive Orders are, here is a chart that gives the average Executive Orders per year for the last few Presidents.
Bush averaging about 35 or 36 Executive Orders per year. And then all the way at the high end, you get to Gerald Ford and Jimmy Carter. Now if you were to go even further back in history, Presidents like Franklin Roosevelt had far more Executive Orders than even this. And just to appreciate some of the most significant Executive Orders ever made, Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation in which was delivered during the Civil War, it freed nearly three million slaves in the Confederate states.
In a few months after Japan's bombardment of Pearl Harbor, Franklin Roosevelt issues Executive Order which called for the internment of Americans of Japanese ancestry.
Federal Register :: Executive Orders
Historians have really frowned on this Executive Order because it was a blatant disregard for the rights of these Americans. But at the time, Franklin Roosevelt justified it as a national security issue. And then in during the Korean war, steel workers are threatening to go on strike.